Category Archives: Microsoft

Azure RDWEB page is blank when accessing it with authorized users

Blank page on RDWeb for users

When you have finished deploying Azure WVD machines and added those machines in the correct hosts you might fall into this error by a chance and not easily be able to understand or see it.

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During the creation of Host Pools and AppGroups you might want to create your own fancy Host pool names and app group names, This is something normal but not when you want to use Azure WVD.

What Happens?

When you create an app group name other than the ones already existing (Desktop Application Group) you have to make sure that you would type this group name into the ARM Template since while deploying the VMs and typing the template would choose the default Application Group Name.

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Error 1

The connection to the remote PC was lost. This might be because of a network connection problem. If this keeps happening, ask your admin or tech support for help.

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Error 2

User is assigned to the wrong Application Group

add-RdsAppGroupUser : The specified UserPrincipalName is already assigned to a RemoteApp AppGroup in the specified HostPool.

ActivityId: feb39a7b-b74f-49d3-a100-1fc22ec66454

Powershell commands to diagnose the failure:

Get-RdsDiagnosticActivities -ActivityId feb39a7b-b74f-49d3-a100-1fc22ec66454

At line:4 char:1

+ add-RdsAppGroupUser -TenantName cagriandMoh10ly -HostPoolName WVD-Hos …

+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

+ CategoryInfo : FromStdErr: (Microsoft.RDInf…RdsAppGroupUser:AddRdsAppGroupUser) [Add-RdsAppGroupUser], RdsPowerShellException

+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : UpnAlreadyHasRemoteAppAssignment,Microsoft.RDInfra.RDPowershell.AppGroupUser.AddRdsAppGroupUser

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Solution:

Remove the user from the other application group and add him to the one where you have your RdsSessionHost that you would like your users to access.

Connect to Azure-AD first and run the following command, Make sure you specify the AppGroupName that you want to remove your users from and the AD Group that’s relevant to those users.

foreach($UPN in (Get-AzureADGroupMember -ObjectId ((Get-AzureADGroup | Where-Object DisplayName -Like “WVDUsers”).ObjectId)).UserPrincipalName)

{

Write-Output $UPN

Remove-RdsAppGroupUser -TenantName cagriandMoh10ly -HostPoolName WVD-Host-Pool01 -AppGroupName “Desktop App Group” -UserPrincipalName $UPN

}

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Add the Users again and see what happens

foreach($UPN in (Get-AzureADGroupMember -ObjectId ((Get-AzureADGroup | Where-Object DisplayName -Like “WVDUsers”).ObjectId)).UserPrincipalName)

{

Write-Output $UPN

Add-RdsAppGroupUser -TenantName cagriandMoh10ly -HostPoolName WVD-Host-Pool01 -AppGroupName “Desktop Application Group” -UserPrincipalName $UPN

}

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Refresh the RDWEB Page and see if you can access your host

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The same desktop came back since we are using FSLogix profile container

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Deploy Azure Linux and Windows servers in 10 mins via cli

This is a step by step guide about deploying Linux or Windows servers on Azure via CLI.

Why Cli?

Some people prefer using Linux rather than PowerShell and it seems sometimes easier and faster to learn esp if you’re not GUI type of person.

Installation Options

If you’re working on Windows and would like to use CLI, you’ll have two options to install CLI

Option 1

Run Azure CLI installation directly from your Powershell (PowerShell needs to run from a privileged account)

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://aka.ms/installazurecliwindows -OutFile .\AzureCLI.msi; Start-Process msiexec.exe -Wait -ArgumentList ‘/I AzureCLI.msi /quiet’

As soon as you run this command, it’ll take about 5 mins or less depending on the connection you have.

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Option 2

Download the MSI file directly from MS’s link and install it on your Computer.

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/cli/azure/install-azure-cli-windows?view=azure-cli-latest

Connect to Azure CLI from PowerShell

Run PowerShell or CMD and type the following command to connect

Az Login then hit enter

As soon as you type this, a web page will be launched asking you for your Azure Account credentials so open the session for your Cli window.

The moment you verified your account, PowerShell will list your azure plans that you have / had before.

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If you’re going to use Linux (Ubuntu, Debian) flavor then you’d have to following the following instructions

Manual install instructions

If you don’t want to run a script as superuser or the all-in-one script fails, follow these steps to install the Azure CLI.

  1. Get packages needed for the install process:

    bash

    
    
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install ca-certificates curl apt-transport-https lsb-release gnupg
  2. Download and install the Microsoft signing key:

    bash

    
    
    curl -sL https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc |
        gpg --dearmor |
        sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/microsoft.asc.gpg > /dev/null
  3. Add the Azure CLI software repository:

    bash

    
    
    AZ_REPO=$(lsb_release -cs)
    echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azure-cli/ $AZ_REPO main" |
        sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure-cli.list
  4. Update repository information and install the

    azure-cli

    package:

    bash

    
    
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install azure-cli

Run the Azure CLI with the

az

command. To sign in, use the az login command.

  1. Run the

    login

    command.

    Azure CLI

    Try It

    
    
    az login

    If the CLI can open your default browser, it will do so and load an Azure sign-in page.

    Otherwise, open a browser page at https://aka.ms/devicelogin and enter the authorization code displayed in your terminal.

  2. Sign in with your account credentials in the browser.

To learn more about different authentication methods, see Sign in with Azure CLI.

Deploying Linux (CentOS):

Creating a Resource Group for Azure Container Instances (ACI)

We will start first by creating a Resource Group for our Machine, calling it a AzureLinuxServersGroup to easily identify that this group contains our Linux Servers

az group create –name AzureLinuxServersGroup –location westeurope

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Next we will be creating a container to contain the Linux OS on the resource group which we have just created

First, How we know which Image to use and if that will be proper for our deployment?

To answer that, we will use the following command which will view the available latest edition Linux OS with different flavors.

I would like to use CentOS since its identical to RedHat and used by majority of Enterprises.

To list the Images, Enter the following command

az vm image list –output table

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Notice there are many columns, The one which we are going to use in terminal command line is the UrnAlias. It’s important to remember this.

az vm create \

–resource-group AzureLinuxServersGroup \

–name AzureCentOSWP \

–image CentOS \

–admin-username Moh10lyUser \

–generate-ssh-keys

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Since we are using Bash, It’s a case sensitive and it complained about user having capital letters. So we’ll go ahead and use small letters

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After running the command with small letters, it’s telling us where we can find the keys in order for us to reach and get them to use later to login to this newly created machine.

SSH key files ‘/home/moh10ly/.ssh/id_rsa’ and ‘/home/moh10ly/.ssh/id_rsa.pub’ have been generated under ~/.ssh to allow SSH access to the VM. If using machines without permanent storage, back up your keys to a safe location.

The deployment of the machine takes about 3 mins, and it’ll be created with the default minimum resources. Let’s view

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Our machine is ready to be accessed now

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In order for you to get the SSH Keys, you’ll have to have a bit of knowledge

I am going to go the location mentioned previously after creating a machine and copy the keys from the bash screen into a file. Save the file and Import it into SSH client which I will be using (Bitvise in my case).

From the bash screen goto cd /

Cd /home/user/.ssh/

Cat id_rsa hit enter and copy the key and save it into notepad.

Cat id_rsa.pub and copy/save into a notepad as the public key.

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After loading both keys, I was able to successfully login to the Server

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Get a list of Azure VMS

az vm image list

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Let’s List and deploy a WordPress on CentOS

To view the list of available CentOS images, we’ll use the following cli command

az vm image list -f CentOS –all

The image needs to be grabbed from dockerhub URL

cognosys:wordpress-with-centos-77-free:wordpress-with-centos-77-free:1.2019.1008

az container create –resource-group mohazbackupgroup –name mohcontainer –os-type Linux –image cognosys:wordpress-with-centos-77-free:wordpress-with-centos-77-free:1.2019.1008 –dns-name-label azmohlinux –ports 22

Create Windows Server core with IIS

az container create –resource-group mohazbackupgroup –name mohcontainer –os-type windows –image mcr.microsoft.com/windoervercore/centos –dns-name-label azmohlinux –ports 22ws/servercore/iis:nanoserver –dns-name-label azmohiis –ports 80

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Here we go I got a machine ready (took about 5 mins)

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azmohiis.westeurope.azurecontainer.io

To delete the container, you can write the following

az container delete –resource-group mohazbackupgroup –name mohcontainer

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Stay tuned for more articles about Azure.

KMS Server Deployment step by step Guide

So What is KMS ?

KMS stands for the abbreviation (Key Management Service) in which enterprises and big companies manage their Software, End user and Servers licenses keys through a single server (Called KMS) which automates the whole process of activation and eliminates the need for an individual or admin interfering to activate them.

Prerequisites for KMS Host:

In order to use KMS, You will need to install Server version of Microsoft Windows. This server can be installed on a Virtual machine or physical one. But still there are requirements to activate other machines.

  • Server needs to be joined to Domain to activate other machines/products.
  • VLSC (Volume License Service Center) Host Key (Can only be acquired through the VLSC portal.
  • If you’re going to activate any Office products (Office 2016/ Office 2019) then you’ll need to download the Office Volume License Pack for those products from the links attached.
  • Run the License Pack you downloaded and enter the Office Key to activate it.

After deploying Windows 2016/2019 Server you can install the role from Server manager or from PowerShell

KMS Installation

Launch powershell in Admin mode and run the following CMDLET

Install-WindowsFeature -Name VolumeActivation

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Continue to the next window and add the required Features

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The next window will let give you some information about the automation of the license activation for MS products and how KMS works.

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There are two options of how activating licenses, One is through using a service or the other through joining server/computer to Active Directory KMS will auto activate products if their relevant KMS licenses are entered in the KMS Host server.

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Install your Windows 2016/2019 KMS Host Server key to create AD Object for KMS

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Choose your activation Method in order to activate the KMS server

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If activation continues successfully you’ll be able to see KMS telling you that continuing will create an AD object . Click Yes to continue

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We’ll wait until this finishes

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When this works, The next window will give you a warning that Clicking Next will delete the current activation Object which is the AD object that has been previously created. Click Close since we want to keep that.

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KMS Host Activation

To view the activation of your KMS Host, You can open CMD on the KMS Server and type

slmg.vbs –dlv

As you can see below, it’ll show summary information about the license you entered and other related info.

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To make sure your installation has went successfully, you can launch ADSI Editor and see if the AD object has been created or not.

From CMD or Powershell type adsiedit.msc

Navigate to Configuration>Services> Microsoft SPP> You should see the Activation Objects there.

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Activating Office 2016 / 2019

As we mentioned previously to activate office 2016 or Office 2019 you will need to download the Office License pack from the links attached previously.

– Office 2016 License Package link https://www.microsoft.com/download/details.aspx?id=49164

– Office 2019 License Package Link https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/downloads/details.aspx?id=57342

NOTE:

You should not launch Volume License Manager when activating Office products or when trying to enter a KMS License key for Office products, Instead when executing the Office Package it will launch it for you and all you have to do is Enter the Office license key and restart Microsoft Windows Client to get Office activated.

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Verifying KMS is Working:

To check if KMS is working on the end user’s side we need to get our hands on one of those clients, restart the user’s PC and then launch one of Office apps and see if it’s activated or not. The condition for the End user is that they need to be domain joined to acquire a license from KMS server.

It gets activated right after a restart!

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Reference

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/deployoffice/vlactivation/configure-a-kms-host-computer-for-office

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/deployoffice/vlactivation/activate-office-by-using-active-directory

Use Group Based Licensing to Active Office 365 Users

The Story

I got a request to place users into Security Groups for management purposes, The client have already users active but many of those users have left the work place and still have E3 or E1 Licenses which they should not have since this is pricey licenses and backing up users details is the easiest and most cost effective way of handling this.

So, To start (Prerequisites):

The Group based licensing management is a new feature, Was introduced in 2019 and not many people know that it is there however, This feature doesn’t come for free as you know (Since it’s Microsoft) and you must have a license for it or at least have users with E3 licensing model. So the requirements are:

  • – Azure AD Premium P1 or Higher
  • – Office 365 E3 or Higher.
  • – EMS or Higher.

How does it work?

In order for you to get this to work  you need to make sure you have planned from where you want to manage those groups and their licenses, Online? Or On-Premises?

If Online

If you’re going to do this online, then you need to create a group for each Licensing Model which represents the intended License and its users e.g. Office365-E1 is going to be created as a security group and dedicated to E1 License users.

Office365-E3 will also be created the same way and users of License type E3 will be added to it.

If On-Premises

If you’re going to manage those groups on-premises, Then you must have ADConnect (Azure AD Sync) tool to sync those groups after creating them.

In my case I have created those groups in the following manner:

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After creating those groups, You will need to sync them to Office 365 using ADConnect. To force this to sync immediately fire up Powershell on Azure Connect Server and type

Start-ADSyncSyncCycle -PolicyType delta

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What If I have users already assigned with License?

If you have users already assigned licenses and want to manage them using Group Based licensing then you’re going to have to get a list of all your users with their Licenses information into a CSV file and Import those users to the groups you created base on the license they have.

I created a PowerShell that would match user’s names and based on the license mentioned in the CSV file would add them to the relevant group but first you need to export Users from Office 365.

Export Users and their license from Office 365

First of all we’ll connect to Office 365 MSOL Service using Online Powershell

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Get-MsolUser -All |Where {$_.IsLicensed -eq $true } |Select DisplayName,UsageLocation,@{n=”Licenses Type”;e={$_.Licenses.AccountSKUid}},SignInName,UserPrincipalName,@{n=”ProxyAddresses”;e={$_.ProxyAddresses}}| Export-csv -Path C:ExportlicenseUsage.csv -notype

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So this is how my CSV look right after I exported the users, We need to do some tuning on this CSV file to clean it and get it ready for our PowerShell.

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There are total of 6 columns in this folder, If for whatever reason you wanted to use the ProxyAddress to distinguish users feel free to keep them in the script but in my case I didn’t need them so I deleted the entire column.

So I will keep the following (Remove Spacing between License Type)

  • DisplayName
  • UsageLocation
  • LicenseType
  • SignInName
  • UserPrincipalName

The Value of the License Type is usually formatted like this “TenantName: License” and in order to make this column useful I am going to remove the Tenant name from all the cells.

Find and Replace can easily remove and clean these values for you.

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After cleaning the column, this is how it looks

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This should be useful for us now along with the PowerShell to add the users to their relevant groups.

On Active Directory from an elevated PowerShell

Run PowerShell ISE  from a privileged account and copy + paste this script in ISE,

$ImportedUsers = Import-csv “C:\Users\AD\Desktop\ExportlicenseUsage.csv”

Foreach ($ImportedUser in $ImportedUsers){
$License = $ImportedUser.LicensesType
$E3 = “E3-Office365”
$E1 = “E1-Office365”
$EMS = “EMS-Office365”
$Sam = $ImportedUser.SamAccountName
$ImportedUPN = $ImportedUser.UserPrincipalName

$AllUsers = Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties *
         Foreach ($User in $AllUsers)
         {
         $UPN = $User.UserPrincipalName

            if($user.UserPrincipalName -eq $ImportedUPN -and $License -match “EMS”)
                 {
                 Add-ADGroupMember -Identity $EMS -Members $Sam
                 Write-Host $($UPN) “User has EMS License and has been added to the Group EMS” -ForegroundColor DarkGreen -BackgroundColor White
                 }
                     ElseIf ($user.UserPrincipalName -eq $ImportedUPN -and $License -Contains “STANDARDPACK”)
                     {
                     Add-ADGroupMember -Identity $E1 -Members $Sam
                     Write-Host $($UPN) “User has E1 License and has been added to the Group E1” -ForegroundColor black -BackgroundColor green
                     }
                         ElseIf ($user.UserPrincipalName -eq $ImportedUPN -and $License -Contains “ENTERPRISEPACK”)
                         {
                         Add-ADGroupMember -Identity $E3 -Members $Sam
                         Write-Host $($UPN) “User has E3 License and has been added to the Group E3” -ForegroundColor Blue -BackgroundColor White
                         }
         }
}

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Enabling Group Based License from Azure Portal

After this script finishes, I can open Azure Portal

From Azure Active Directory > Licenses > All Products

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I will choose the license which I want to assign to a group of which I have created on my on-premises AD

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Click on the License (Office 365 E1)  and choose Assign from top menu

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Make sure you select assignment options and customize the license according to the products you want your group members to use then click on Users and Groups and select the relevant Group which you’ve created (In my case it’s E1-Office365)

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Here, The group has been assigned

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Click assign and you should be done

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We will do the same for E3 Users

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NOTE

From now on, Removing any user from this group will revoke their license and any service connected to it, You must be very careful when removing users from this group.

Microsoft has done great job covering this thoroughly and in a great detail including Scripts to be able to do many things like grabbing users who have an inherited license from a group or manually assigned. I am writing down the references if you’re more curious into these.

References:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/users-groups-roles/licensing-groups-assign

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/users-groups-roles/licensing-ps-examples

How to Sync Cloud User to On-premises AD ?

The Story:

I have got this client who constantly keeps on making the mistake of create user from Cloud and provision them with a license in an Exchange Hybrid environment.

Although this is not difficult to fix but it’s not the recommended approach when creating a new user especially in a Hybrid environment since Exchange on-premises won’t recognize this user and most likely will consider any incoming emails from it as spoof or spam.

How to Create a Cloud user from Exchange On-premises?

From Exchange on-premises ECP Admin panel you have the option to directly create user on-cloud which will also create a user object on on-premises AD.

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Second option – Using Powershell

It’s not that much different than the Web UI option but it’s just for people who prefer using PowerShell than GUI

Enable-RemoteMailbox –Identity User –RemoteRoutingAddress user@yourTenant.mail.onmicrosoft.com

The reason to follow those two methods is due to the need of Exchange on-premises being aware of each of those users so mail flow between Exchange on-premises and Online would not get affected and route this users mail to the wrong place or flag it as spammed or spoof …etc.

The Real Question now is: How to Sync Cloud User to On-premises AD ?

If by mistake we created a user on Cloud (Office 365) and we forgot to create an AD User for this account, that user might already have started using his account on Office 365 (Sharepoint, Exchange, Teams) etc.

There also might be the intention of moving users from Cloud to On-premises Exchange in case the company wanted to decrease their spending on cloud users and in this case when Migrating a cloud user to on-premises you will get the following errors:

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test3@domain.com

Status: Failed

test3@domain.com Skipped item details

User status

Data migrated:

Migration rate:

Last successful sync date:

Error: MigrationPermanentException: Cannot find a recipient that has mailbox GUID ‎’03c9764e-8b8e-4f33-94d1-ef098c4de656‎’. –> Cannot find a recipient that has mailbox GUID ‎’03c9764e-8b8e-4f33-94d1-ef098c4de656‎’.

So how do we overcome this situation since syncing a user might require you to delete the cloud user and recreate it on AD?

Solution:

To sync the user from the Cloud to on-premises you will need to follow these steps :

1- Create an on-premises Mailbox where the following attributes would be matching the cloud user

  • UserPrincipalname
  • ProxyAddresses
  • SamAccountName
  • Alias

2- The Location of the OU where the On-premises user is going to be created must be provisioned by ADConnect (Azure AD Connect)

You can look which of these OU are provisioned by Starting AD Connect Sync Manager

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By verifying the user you created in the AD is in the right OU, You can now start AD Sync from PowerShell to speed up the process.

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Below, You can see the user has been successfully synchronized to the cloud without any issue.

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Now we’ll see it from the portal to confirm the user is synced with AD

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Depending on the Source anchor being used in ADConnect there might be a GUID conflict or not, You will get an error similar to when trying to migrate the user in the beginning however you can solve this by replacing the cloud user’s GUID (ImmutableID) with the on-premises user which will force the user to merge with the On-prem user.

Let’s confirm in our case if the user on-cloud has a matching GUID with the one on-premises.

From CMD or Powershell you can use the following command to get the user’s ImmutableID (ObjectGUID) .

ldifde -f c:\Test.txt -d “cn=Test3,DC=Domain,DC=com”

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Checking the notepad we just exported you can see the Immutable ID on AD for the User test3 is IkTni9mw7Ee4YefeGpz7IA==

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To be able to see the user on Office 365, We need to logon to MSOL through Exchange Online powershell

Connect to Exchange Online’s powershell using your Online ECP.

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Once you click on Configure this should download an executable file that will launch PowerShell Online which allows you to use the Modern Authentication (MFA) to use PowerShell safely.

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Connect-Msoluser will connect you to Office 365 and you’ll be able to get the user’s properties and see if the Immutable ID is matching to the user’s GUID.

Once you’re connect you can use the following cmdlet to get the user’s properties.

Get-MsolUser -UserPrincipalName test3@domain.com |fl DisplayName,ImmutableID

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You can see they are matching each other, In case there’s a conflict then you can simply set the online user’s Immutable ID to the on-premises user and that should solve the problem.

Ref:

https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/2956029/migrationpermanentexception-cannot-find-a-recipient-that-has-mailbox-g

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/exchange/hybrid-deployment/create-cloud-based-archive

How to Bulk Delete Exchange Online Distribution and Office 365 groups


Part of Office 365 security auditing is to ensure that all users and groups in your organization are created for a purpose of which you’re aware of and can control these users, groups.

After auditing groups on Office 365 Exchange CP, I noticed that it’s not possible to bulk or multi delete groups from CP and it has to be done one by one or go through the better and more professional way of using PowerShell.


Create CSV for groups to be deleted:

In order for you to delete multiple groups at once you’ll need to first create file with the groups that needs to be deleted. Download the CSV from Groups tab in Exchange Admin Center as in the below screenshot.


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Once you download the file you can create a new column where you’ll highlight the once to be deleted and export the csv after filtering the once to be deleted.


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Connect to Office 365:

Once you’ve got the file ready, You only need to connect to Office 365, You might want to make sure you have an App Password created with the privileged account if your MFA is enabled to delete/create groups or users.

To create an app password you must login to your account and follow these steps

https://support.office.com/en-us/article/create-an-app-password-for-office-365-3e7c860f-bda4-4441-a618-b53953ee1183

After logging in to Exchange Online ( Office 365 ) you will be able to bulk delete groups using the following script

# This script deletes selected groups imported from csv file “Groups-to-delete.csv”
# CSV file contains the following
# DISPLAYNAME,GROUPTYPE,STATUS,EMAIL,Delete
# Group1(ADEO),Distribution list,Group1@Moh10ly.com,yes
# Make sure you use an APP Password to authenticate Exchange Online
$cres = Get-Credential
$Session = New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -ConnectionUri https://outlook.office365.com/powershell-liveid/ -Credential $cres -Authentication Basic -AllowRedirection
Import-PSSession $Session
$groups = Import-Csv “C:\Users\groups-to-delete.csv”
foreach ($group in $groups)
{
$GroupID = $Group.Email
$DN = $group.DISPLAYNAME
$State = $group.STATUS
If (Get-DistributionGroup -Identity $GroupID){
Write-Host $DN exists and will be deleted -ForegroundColor Green
Remove-DistributionGroup -Identity $GroupID -Confirm } else
{
Write-Host $DN “Group doesn’t exist”
}
}

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Delete Office 365 Type Groups:

In the case you have Office 365 type groups, Those groups are not considered Exchange groups and they don’t reside in Exchange server but Azure AD and they must be deleted from there. Assuming I want to delete some Office 365 groups that has name (Kaizala) in their display name.

First let’s connect to Azure AD, which will allow you to see the Office 365 groups and be able to delete them.


Connecting to Azure AD

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Let’s get the Kaizala groups and see if the powershell command will show us the result positively.

Get-AzureADMSGroup | Where-Object {$_.displayname -like “*kaiza*”}

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Let’s delete these groups using this cmdlet

Get-AzureADMSGroup | Where-Object {$_.displayname -like “*kaiza*”} | Remove-AzureADMSGroup

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After deleting, now we can see that Kaizala groups are all deleted.

NOTE: Microsoft will keep those groups for a day if you mistakenly have deleted them you’ll be able to recover them from ECP.

If not, They will remain in the Recycle bin for 30 days before permanently getting deleted.


Hope this article helped you.

Migration Computer with ADMT gives an error Logon Failure: The target account name is incorrect

If you’re doing a Cross Forest migration project then you most likely have had a big experience but the more you do those kind of projects the more you’ll see different types of errors and issues rising up.

One of the issues I had in one of the cross forest projects that I have done before was the following error

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To start troubleshooting, we’ll start by ruling out the following main causes.

  1. Checked DNS.
  2. Checked relative services (Netbios, RPC, Computer browser ..etc)
  3. Checked firewall (Kaspersky and windows) and closed them both.
  4. Checked connected DC and changed it to a different one.
  5. Checking DCs / Frs (File repliation service) replication and health.

The Kerberos client received a KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED error from the server smart0188$. The target name used was RPCSS/Smart0248.smartmoss.local. This indicates that the target server failed to decrypt the ticket provided by the client. This can occur when the target server principal name (SPN) is registered on an account other than the account the target service is using. Ensure that the target SPN is only registered on the account used by the server. This error can also happen if the target service account password is different than what is configured on the Kerberos Key Distribution Center for that target service. Ensure that the service on the server and the KDC are both configured to use the same password. If the server name is not fully qualified, and the target domain (SMARTMOSS.LOCAL) is different from the client domain (SMARTMOSS.LOCAL), check if there are identically named server accounts in these two domains, or use the fully-qualified name to identify the server.

Suppose you have a domain member named DOMAINMEMBER. You can reset the member secure channel by using the following command:

NETDOM MEMBER \\DOMAINMEMBER /JOINDOMAIN

From <https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/175024/>

You can run the command above on the member DOMAINMEMBER or on any other member or domain controller of the domain, provided that you are logged on with an account that has administrator access to DOMAINMEMBER.

The output received from the command should be similar to the following:

Searching PDC for domain DOMAIN …
Found PDC \\DOMAINPDC
Querying domain information on PDC \\DOMAINPDC
Querying domain information on computer \\DOMAINMEMBER
Computer \\DOMAINMEMBER is already a member of domain DOMAIN.
Verifying secure channel on \\DOMAINMEMBER
Verifying the computer account on the PDC \\DOMAINPDC
Resetting secure channel …
Changing computer account on PDC \\DOMAINPDC
Stopping service NETLOGON on \\DOMAINMEMBER …. stopped.
Starting service NETLOGON on \\DOMAINMEMBER …. started.
Querying user groups of \\DOMAINMEMBER
Adding DOMAIN domain groups on \\DOMAINMEMBER

The computer \\DOMAINMEMBER joined the domain DOMAIN successfully.

Logoff/Logon \\DOMAINMEMBER to take modifications into effect.

From <https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/175024/>

Solution 1-

nltest.exe can be used to check the channel and attempt to reset it.

nltest.exe /sc_verify:smartmoss.local

If that does not do it, you can restart the netlogon service (I mainly use PowerShell, so I’ll give an example of that).

Get-Service netlogon | restart-service
nltest.exe /sc_verify:<fully.qualified.domain.name.here>

I ran the nltest command after restarting the service to validate that the secure channel was back in operation.

If you’ve made some network changes (IP Addresses, changing hardware, virtualizing, etc..) you might want to flush your dns cache and clear your arp table before running the above commands.

ipconfig /flushdns
arp -d *
Get-Service netlogon | restart-service
nltest.exe /sc_verify:<fully.qualified.domain.name.here>

Let’s try to find out which DC the client is connected to

nltest /dsgetdc: Dc.local

Point the client to a different DC

nltest /Server:client0 /SC_RESET: DC.Local\DC02

Testing tool

Checked the following tool

http://www.lansweeper.com/kb/2/The-RPC-server-is-unavailable.html

Checked the services RPC, computer browser,

Solution 2-

There is a bug in MS after 400 days of uptime that they don’t tear down their time_wait connections so the server runs out of sockets and can’t make connections to the DC – a reboot should fix this issue temporarily.

From <http://community.spiceworks.com/topic/218426-there-are-currently-no-logon-servers-available-to-service-the-logon-request>

net stats srv

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Russian cyberspies are using one hell of a clever Microsoft Exchange backdoor

Turla APT found exploiting LightNeuron backdoor, a first of its kind targeting Microsoft Exchange email servers.

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A Russian cyber-espionage group has developed and has been using one of the most complex backdoors ever spotted on an email server, according to new research published today by cyber-security firm ESET.

The backdoor, named LightNeuron, was specifically designed for Microsoft Exchange email servers and works as a mail transfer agent (MTA) –an approach that no other backdoor has ever taken.

“To our knowledge, this is the first malware specifically targeting Microsoft Exchange,” ESET Malware Researcher Matthieu Faou told ZDNet via email.

“Turla targeted email servers in the past using a malware called Neuron (a.k.a DarkNeuron) but it was not specifically designed to interact with Microsoft Exchange.

“Some other APTs use traditional backdoors to monitor mail servers’ activity. However, LightNeuron is the first one to be directly integrated into the working flow of Microsoft Exchange,” Faou told us.

Because of the deep level the backdoor works, LightNeuron allows hackers to have full control over everything that passes through an infected email server, having the ability to intercept, redirect, or edit the content of incoming or outgoing emails.

LIGHTNEURON DEVELOPED BY TURLA GROUP

This makes LightNeuron one of the most powerful tools of its kind, and a tool fit to be in the arsenal of Turla, one of the world’s most advanced nation-state hacking units.

The Turla APT (advanced persistent threat) is infamous for past operations that seem to be pulled out of Hollywood movies. The group has been known to hijack and use telecommunications satellites to deliver malware to remote areas of the globe, has developed malware that hid its control mechanism inside comments posted on Britney Spears’ Instagram photos, and has hijacked the infrastructure of entire ISPs to redirect users to malware.

In a report released today, ESET says that Turla has been using LightNeuron for almost five years, since 2014, which again shows the tool’s advanced capabilities, being able to avoid detection for so many years.

To be fair, the first mention of LightNeuron was in a Kaspersky Lab report on the APT Trends of Q2 2018. However, Kaspersky only described the tool in brief. The ESET report released today shines more light on the tool’s unique capabilities that make it stand out from all other backdoors deployed on email servers up until now.

Researchers warn that LightNeuron is currently being used in live attacks and that Turla also appears to have created a UNIX port –which ESET hasn’t been able to find until now.

The Slovak cyber-security firms said it detected three victim organizations infected with Turla’s LightNeuron backdoor. The company did not name the victims, but provided general descriptions:

– Unknown organization in Brazil
– Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Eastern Europe
– Regional diplomatic organization in the Middle East

A CLEVER WAY OF CONTROLLING LIGHTNEURON

According to researchers, the thing that made LightNeuron stand out, besides being the first backdoor for Microsoft Exchange servers, was its command-and-control mechanism.

Once a Microsoft Exchange server is infected and modified with the LightNeuron backdoor, hackers never connect to it directly. Instead, they send emails with PDF or JPG attachments.

Using the technique of steganography, Turla hackers hide commands inside PDF and JPG images, which the backdoor reads and then executes.

Per ESET, LightNeuron is capable of reading and modifying any email going through the Exchange server, composing and sending new emails, and blocking a user from receiving certain emails.

Furthermore, victim organizations will have a hard time detecting any interactions between Turla operators and their backdoor, mainly because the commands are hidden inside PDF/JPG code and the incoming emails could be disguised as banal spam.

In addition, if anyone had any doubts LightNeuron was the work of Russian hackers, ESET researchers said that in the cases they investigated they found that Turla operators only sent commands to backdoored servers during a typical 9-to-5 workday in the UTC+3 (Moscow) timezone, and took a break from all operations between December 28, 2018, and January 14, the typical Christmas and New Year holidays for Eastern Orthodox Christians –Russia’s main religion.

LightNeuron working hours

Image: ESET

Because LightNeuron works at the deepest levels of a Microsoft Exchange server, removing this backdoor is quite problematic.

ESET released a white paper today with detailed removal instructions.

Microsoft Office 365 is available in Mac App Store now

Last year Microsoft has promised that it’ll bring Microsoft office 365 on the Mac App Store and today is the day.

The statement by MS reads:

“We are excited to welcome Microsoft Office 365 to the all new Mac App Store in macOS Mojave. Apple and Microsoft have worked together to bring great Office productivity to Mac users from the very beginning. Now, with Office 365 on the Mac App Store, it’s easier than ever to get the latest and best version of Office 365 for Mac, iPad, and iPhone.”
—Phil Schiller, Apple’s senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing

  • Image result for office 365 apps mac

Office 365 apps are already available for Mac however, placing these app in Mac App Store gives the Mac users the capability to manage apps updates, control their installation and much more.

The Office 365 apps were supposed to be released last year but due to delay for unknown reasons they have postponed it to 2019.

Image of a MacBook open displaying Dark Mode in PowerPoint.

Download Office 365 from the Mac App Store.*

No More Privacy, Says Microsoft and MasterCard

MONITORING SOCIETY. Mobile Bank ID and Swish were just the beginning. Now, Mastercard and Microsoft are to produce digital identities for everyone. Your identity should be known no matter what you do. The system will also simplify for increased invasion of racial strangers to the West.

Microsoft Logo

Last Month, Mastercard and Microsoft announced in a joint communication that they intend to produce new digital identity documents for all people, who will work in all contexts.

All choices and social actions performed in agreements with authorities and companies must be linked through this new digital identity document that will always prove your identity and your actions.

The new identity document should “simplify” our interactions, no matter what we do. It should also be used to verify Facebook users and the like.

“To vote, drive, search for jobs, rent a home, get married and board an aircraft: All such acts mean you have to prove your identity. Together with Microsoft, we work to create a universally valid digital identity document, ”writes Mastercard in his communication.


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Mastercard explains the companies’ new projects as follows:

Verifying their identity on the Internet is still dependent on physical or digital evidence handled by a central player, whether it be a passport number, accounting address, driver’s license, user identities or other things.

This dependency puts a heavy burden on individuals who must be able to remember hundreds of passwords for different identities, and they must perform increasingly complex actions to prove their identity and manage their data.

Mastercard and Microsoft aim to provide people with a safe and fast way to verify their identity to anyone, whenever they want.

The answer to these challenges is a service that lets users enter, control and share their identity data in their own ways – on devices they use every day. This is Mastercard’s intention, in close collaboration with players such as Microsoft.

– Today’s digital identity landscape is a jungle, inconsistent; and what works in one country often does not work in another. We have the opportunity to establish a system that puts people first and gives them control over their identity data and where they are used, ”says Ajay Bhalla , head of cyber and information solutions at Mastercard.

“By working with Microsoft, we are one step closer to the realization of a globally interoperable digital identity service,” continues Bhalla.

The new digital identities will create opportunities for new and improved user experiences for people who interact with businesses, service entities and virtual networks, such as:

  • Financial Services : Enhance and speed up identification processes to open new bank accounts, create loans, or make payments.
  • Kommers : Enable a more individualized and effective shopping experience both on the Internet and in business, regardless of the form of payment, portable device or service provider.
  • Contact with authorities : Simplification of communication with authorities and services, such as declaring income, ordering pass documents, voting or ensuring that your contributions are paid.
  • Digital Services : Streamlined and simpler ways to use email, social media, music and movie streaming services and car pools.

A new way of managing one of the cornerstones of life
– The digital identity is a cornerstone of how people live, work and entertain themselves every day, says Joy Chik , Microsoft’s vice president of identities.

– We believe that individuals should have control over their digital identity and data, and we are enthusiastic about working with Mastercard to give life to new decentralized innovations, says Chik.

This digital solution will also solve many common challenges:

  • Identity conclusion : Over one billion people, the majority of them women, children and refugees, do not have official identity. A digital identity can improve their access to health, money and social services.
  • Identity Verification : A single, reusable digital identity can help people interact with a vendor, bank, authority, and impersonal other digital service broker with greater integrity, lower cost, and less friction.
  • Fraud Prevention : A single digital identity can reduce the number of payment fraud and various forms of identity theft.

Displeased individuals can be immediately blocked all over the world
With integrated systems, it is easy to lock identities for all or selected forms of transactions. An identity that is used for a purpose that displeases some of the more influential operators, can with some keystrokes be prevented from, for example, taking bank loans, opening a bank account, starting a car or flying aircraft. This may apply, for example, to “suspected Muslim terrorists”.

A nationalist who is opposed to the globalized world can with the coming system be prevented from voting in elections so that “undemocratic parties” cannot flare up, and so on.

This is nothing that is written in the communiqué, but it is technically easy to manage the identity in this way. The purpose of the new digital identities is that all people’s identity should be transparent and undoubtedly identifiable. All their doings and songs should always be obvious and easy to trace and “manage”.

Logical development
Mastercard has previously had global payment solution projects that will facilitate migration across the world. Financial man George Soros , together with Mastercard and the UN, have various migration projects where “refugees” get access to bank accounts and payment solutions in order to more easily infiltrate the West.

At the same time, the UN’s new global migration agreement – which among other things Norway and the Swedish transitional government that governs overtime intends to write on December 10 – aims, among other things, to reduce transaction costs for “refugees” who want to move financial resources from their new contributing industrialized host countries, to the countries from which they have fled.

With Mastercards, Microsoft’s and the UN’s new global ventures, the “friction” will thus decrease between what the racially invasive invaders and the asylum seekers want from the West, and the fulfillment of these desires.